dwarka underwater museum

Cheema, assistant chief of naval staff, explained. Excavations done by Dr. S.R. Required fields are marked *. Another important pilgrimage site in the ancient city of Dwarka is Gomti ghat. Dwaraka was just a name; just a memory». A 21-member team conducted the survey in January-February 2007. Every significant antiquity that corroborates a statement of the. Thirdly, the nick point where the ancient Gomati river joined the sea had to be determined. Operation Dwarka was a naval operation by the Pakistan Navy to attack the Indian coastal town of Dwarka on 7 and 8 September 1965. The earlier cities have been, at various times, swallowed by the sea. It is older than the Egyptian, older than the Chinese. However, Vishwakarma says that the task can be completed only if Samudradeva, the Lord of the sea provided some land. «The findings in Dwaraka and archeological evidence found compatible with the Mahabharata tradition remove the lingering doubt about the historicity of the great epic. Over 200 experts from 84 countries, who gathered under the aegis of UNESCO in Paris recently to examine a draft convention on the issue, unanimously agreed that underwater cultural heritage was in urgent need of protection from destruction and pillaging. The explorations conducted in the Gulf of Cambay waters revealed sandstone walls, a grid of streets and some evidence of a sea port 70 feet under water. Until recently the very existence of the city of Dwarka was a matter of legends. According to ancient Sanskrit literature, the Lord Krishna founded the holy city of Dwarka, which subsequently got submerged under sea. It is the description of the battle that draws the attention of the ancient aliens theorists, as it seems to suggest it was fought with sophisticated technology and advanced weapons, potentially even with a craft attacking from the orbit. ... lakhs of devotees visit this temple to seek blessings of Lord Krishna. In Dwaraka, Krishna is supposed to have built a mighty kingdom on a site selected for him by Vishnu’s learned ‘vahan’, Garud. The architecture of the old Dwaraka of Krishna is majestic and wonderful. The buildings built of smaller fraction stone blocks are razed to the ground leaving only small portions of the thick fort walls, bastions and protection walls (built with massive stones) which are too heavy to be moved by tides and currents. The hall in front is richly carved and supported by 60 massive pillars, each one hewn out of a single stone slab. According to ancient Sanskrit literature, the Lord Krishna founded the holy city of Dwarka, which subsequently got submerged under sea. Lord Krishna counterattacked and fired his weapons on the ship. Situated in Saurashtra, at a point where the Gomti river meets the Arabian sea, it has acquired multifarious names down the ages: Dwaraka, the gateway to eternal happiness; Swarnapuri, the city of gold, Swarnadwarika, the golden gateway. The waves of the sea still lap the shores of this famous town, lending scenic beauty to this important pilgrimage destination. Besides the sea-ports, there were renowned cities which were washed away by the rivers on whose banks they were situated. Sri Krishna worshipped Samudradeva, who was pleased and gave them land measuring 12 yojans and the divine architect Vishwakarma build Dwaraka, a city in gold». Krishna's Lost City Of Dwarka. The 30 to 40 meter-high hill on the eastern flank of Sankhodhara may be the Raivataka referred to in the. Mainstream scientists maintain that ancient Indian culture/civilization goes back some 4-5 thousand years. Even as they were all looking, Arjuna saw the beautiful buildings becoming submerged one by one. (Indus Valley) and 550 BC. The architecture of the old Dwaraka of Krishna is majestic and wonderful. at least 9 thousand years ago. The Harivamsha says that every citizen of Dwaraka had to carry a mudra as a mark of identifications The seal (mudra) found in the excavation belongs to 15th-16th century B.C. The project also mooted the idea of a submarine museum of dolphins as they are in good population in deeper water, off Dwarka. Over 200 experts from 84 countries, who gathered under the aegis of UNESCO in Paris recently to examine a draft convention on the issue, unanimously agreed that underwater cultural heritage was in urgent need of protection from destruction and pillaging. Nearly two decades after marine archeologists found the lost city of Dwaraka off the coast of Gujarat the state government continues to drag its feet on a proposal to establish the world's first underwater museum to view the remains of the city submerged in the Arabian Sea. The magnificent temple that stands there now is a replica of the original temple. Dwarka, one of the best-studied underwater sites in India, has commanded much attraction, also because the site is considered as one of the four Dhamas (sacred place for pilgrimage) of the Hindu religion. Eastward it extended upto Pindara. Brief accounts of the findings of the underwater search for the lost city have appeared in 1987, Progress and Prospects of Marine Archaeology in India, and in 1988, Marine Archaeology of Indian Ocean Countries. Dailybhaskar.com | Last Modified - Jul 12, 2017, 11:31 AM IST Marine scientists say … Dwarka is one of the best-studied underwater sites in India. Eastward it extended upto Pindara. But in the early eighties an important archaeological site was found at the site of the legendary city of Lord Krishna. Parts of it date from the 12th-13th century and others from the 16th, but the Jag Mandir, its sanctum sanctorum, is supposed to be 2,500 years old. «It is only after marine archaeologists started exploring the sea-bed near modem Dwaraka from 1981 that the structural remains of the city were found». The prasadareferred to in the epic must be the high fort walls of Dwaraka, a part of which is extant. Book your tickets online for the top things to do in Dwarka, India on Tripadvisor: See 8,306 traveler reviews and photos of Dwarka tourist attractions. The proposed underwater museum at Dwaraka, the first of its kind in the world, and a marine archaeology museum will throw more light on the Indus Valley civilisation and enable researchers to peep into the history of the lost city of the Mahabharata era. It was also necessary to ascertain whether its architectural features were in conformation with the description of the city of Dwaraka given in the epic Mahabharata. The navy had deployed its survey ship INS Nirdeshak for this in November 2006. Nearly two decades after marine archeologists found the lost city of Dwaraka off the coast of Gujarat the state government continues to drag its feet on a proposal to establish the world's first underwater museum to view the remains of the city submerged in the Arabian Sea. «For India, it was the first time that such an important discovery was reported from near Dwaraka site, the off-shore region where underwater archeological exploration was in progress», Union Minister for Science and Technology Murli Manohar Joshi said at a crowded Press conference. A second object was to obtain more corroborative evidence for reclamation referred to in the epic. Once, when Krishna was ruling the city of Mathura, the kingdom was repeatedly attacked by Jarasandha, the tyrant King of Magadha (the present day Bihar, India), around 17 times. It would no longer be merely a book of myths and legends, but in fact, at least to some extent, a genuine account of past events. According to the BBC’s Tom Housden, reporting on the Cambay find: The vast city — which is five miles long and two miles wide — is believed to predate the oldest known remains in the subcontinent by more than 5,000 years. Interesting descriptions about its construction are found in Purana. Feb 13, 2020 - Krishna's underwater City Of Dwarka and its connection to the Alien Anunnaki civilization described in the Vedas. Parts of it date from the 12th-13th century and others from the 16th, but the Jag Mandir, its sanctum sanctorum, is supposed to be 2,500 years old. This can be corroborated by the stone bases of flag posts found in the sea bed excavation. According to Mahabharata, the ancient Indian epic, it was established by Lord Krishna himself. Join our newsletter and receive the latest updates via email. The remains of what has been described as a huge lost city may force historians and archaeologists to radically reconsider their view of ancient human history. Nearly a decade ago, the underwater archaeology wing of the Archaeological Survey of India discovered copper coins and fragments of granite structures. The implications of accepting the archeologists’ finds as proof that the sunken city is indeed the legendary Dwarka would be very significant for the understanding of what the Mahabharata is. As no information was available about that period, they had labelled it the Dark Period. «The search for the lost city has been going on since 1930» — S.R. Excavations done by Dr. S.R. According to ancient Sanskrit literature, Lord Krishna founded the holy city of Dwarka, which subsequently got submerged in the sea. It was well fortified and surrounded by a moat, spanned by bridges, which were removed in the event of attack by an enemy. Another story says that at the time of the death of Sri Krishna, who was hit by the arrow of a hunter near Somnath at Bhalka Tirth, Dwaraka disappeared in the sea. Some of the subjects are of Jaina and Buddhist origin. They are randomly scattered over a vast area. At this stage, Krishna decided to build a separate city on an island in the Western coast of India, to save his citizens, his Yadava clan from the trouble of repeated wars. Until quite recently the ancient city of Dwarka – thought to be a kingdom built by Lord Krishna, home to 700,000 palaces made of gold, silver and precious stones – was the stuff of myth, when in 2000 India ’s National Institute of Ocean Technology discovered ruins 131 feet below the surface of the Gulf of Khambhat. «Further investigation of this area was important as it might throw some light on the development of human civilisation, besides having a bearing on the Indian history», concluded Dr. Joshi. In, The importance of the discovery of Dwaraka lies not merely in providing archaeological evidence needed for corroborating the traditional account of the submergence of Dwaraka but also indirectly fixing the date of the, Besides the sea-ports, there were renowned cities which were washed away by the rivers on whose banks they were situated. Over 23000 years old evidences of God Shri Krishn's Dwarka/Dwarika/Dvarika Nagri have been found which proves that Sanatan Vedic Dharm is the oldest civilization in the world. Offshore exploration of the legendary city at Dwaraka was resumed in 1988 and continued through 1990 (see the Journal of Marine Archaeology, 1990), further seaward of the Temple of Samudranardyana (Sea God) at Dwaraka with a view to trace the plan and extent of the port-city and the purpose of the massive stone walls built on the banks of ancient Gomati. His book titled ‘The Lost City of Dwarka’ was released in 1999, generated tremendous interest among many people. These findings suggest that Dwarka was one of the most busy port centers during the past on the west coast of India. Dwaraka was a western Indian city submerged by the sea right after the death of Sri Krishna. Rao at Dwaraka prove that the descriptions as found in these texts are not to be discarded as fanciful but are to be treated as based on actualities as seen by their authors. A 21-member team conducted the survey in January-February 2007. Umashankar Joshi is of the view that antardvipa in the region of Kugasthali referred to in the Mahabharata must be Bet Dwaraka. Rao said that if a fraction of the funds spent on land archeology were made available for underwater archaeology, more light could be thrown on Dwaraka, which had much archeological significance because it was built during the second urbanization that occurred in India after the Indus Valley civilization in northwestern India. The temple is 157 feet high. Why is that the rediscovery of Dwaraka has not attracted the same degree of attention in the West, as that of ancient Troy by Heinrich Schliemann? Mr. Rao has handed over a project to the government of Gujarat for building an underwater museum in Arabian Sea at Dwarka. The Dwarkadhish temple, dedicated to Sri Krishna, is the focal point of all pilgrimages. Find what to do today, this weekend, or in January. Archaeological excavations have unearthed artifacts that prove that modern Dwaraka is the sixth settlement of the name on this site. In a matter of a few moments it was all over. This was regarded as a grandiose metaphor, part of a story filled with great myths. The search for the ancient Dwarka had been ongoing for some decades, until a circular wooden structure was discovered underwater off the coast of Jamnagar. We would say Krishna definitely existed», said Rao. The site was discovered by chance last year by oceanographers from India’s National Institute of Ocean Technology, who were conducting a survey of pollution. The submerged parts of these cities are to be treated as protected monuments and great treasures of the ancient heritage of India. The Bhagavata Purana says that before leaving his mortal frame Sri Krishna put the ladies and children in boats and sent them to Sankhodhara. The city was well fortified and could be reached only by ship. There is also a strong case for a Maritime Museum of Antiquities found in excavations at Dwarka, Bet Dwarka, Somnath, Nageswar and dioramas of Lothal port and Dwarka city. Literary texts like the Mahabharata, Harivamsha and Purana contain traditions about the foundation of Dwaraka, its planning and glory. Expert moots Underwater Museum for Dwaraka By Staff | Published: Thursday, January 17, 2008, 16:09 [IST] Bangalore, Jan 17 (UNI) Marine Archaeologist S R … Before commencing diving operations, a specialised naval hydrographic team systematically surveyed the area off Dwarka with the help of multi-beam sonar and side-scan sonar. The earlier cities have been, at various times, swallowed by the sea. As a sacred city, it was first referenced in Buddhist, Jain, and Indian texts, and aside from an interior and external wall being unearthed, fort bastions, and a jetty, too, were excavated. Many rock like this can be found near sea. They have found two large structures on the seabed, one of which is near Bet Dwarka. «The idea was to achieve maximum extraction without damaging the environment,» he added. This project is a joint initiative of Adventure Sports Ltd (ASL) and the Government of Gujarat, with an investment of Rupees 13 crores. According to ancient Sanskrit literature, the Lord Krishna founded the holy city of Dwarka, which subsequently got submerged under sea. (Indus Valley) and 550 BC. Four enclosures are laid bare; each one had one or two gateways. therefor mahabharata couldnt have happened in 3126 bc and should have been older.One needs to lookat similar astronomical alignments matching to the sinking of dwarka city, Your email address will not be published. Krishna's Lost City Of Dwarka. The ruins have been proclaimed the remains of the legendary lost city of Dwarka which, according to ancient Hindu texts, was the dwelling place of the deity known as Krishna. The museum was started in 2009 and officially opened in 2010, with three different galleries submerged between 9.8 and 16.6 feet deep in the ocean. Dwarka soon became a talking point everywhere, and commanded awe and wonder all over the world. «The idea was to achieve maximum extraction without damaging the environment,» he added. These included aspects like documentation, controlled digging, and the retrieval, packaging and transportation of samples» Cheema said. Save my name, email, and website in this browser for the next time I comment. The waves of the sea still lap the shores of this famous town, lending scenic beauty to this important pilgrimage destination. If Dwaraka excavations throw a flood of light on the history of the city which was associated with the life events of Krishna, the underwater excavations of Ayodhya situated on the bank of the river Sarayu might yield valuable information about the historicity of Rama, his age and contemporary urban status. The 30 to 40 meter-high hill on the eastern flank of Sankhodhara may be the Raivataka referred to in the Mahabharata. «Before the excavation, naval divers were indoctrinated by ASI experts on the procedures and method to be followed during the investigation. Debris recovered from the site — including construction material, pottery, sections of walls, beads, sculpture, and human bones and teeth — has been carbon dated and found to be nearly 9,500 years old (BBC article). The city he built is supposed to have extended over 104 kms. The Cancun Underwater Museum is one of the most fascinating manmade locations ever made. Universal Facts#dwarka #lostcity #dwarkaunderwatertemple #universalfactsMusic:https://www.youtube.com/c/NCMEpicMusic Music: Laugh, Michel … Dwarka Underwater Museum Owing to the several damages and destruction the city of Dwarka has submerged six times and the city now has been rebuilt the seventh time. Thus the results have proved that the account in Mahabharata as to the existence of a beautiful capital city of Dwaraka of Sri Krishna was not a mere figment of imagination but it did exist. From the structural remains in Dwaraka and Bet Dwaraka waters, it is possible to visualise that the city-ports were large and well planned. Dwaraka’s existence disproves the belief held by Western archeologists that there was no urbanization in the Indian subcontinent from the period between 1700 BC. The city he built is supposed to have extended over 104 kms. As no information was available about that period, they had labelled it the Dark Period. «Further investigation of this area was important as it might throw some light on the development of human civilisation, besides having a bearing on the Indian history», concluded Dr. Joshi. The Monarch lost to Krishna in all 17 battles, and he attacked Mathura the 18th time. The port Aramda on way to Bet Dwaraka was the first gateway in the outer fortifications. The. the existence of dwarka and its sinking dosent coincide with the life of krishna… if mahabharata happened in 3126 BC as per astronomical calculations and dwarka sank around 9500 bc… that is during the ice age, there is a 6000 year gap…between the two, especially if one takes krishna’s life span to be 125 years. «For India, it was the first time that such an important discovery was reported from near Dwaraka site, the off-shore region where underwater archeological exploration was in progress», Union Minister for Science and Technology Murli Manohar Joshi said at a crowded Press conference. The sea rushed into the city. The general layout of the city of Dwaraka described in ancient texts agrees with that of the submerged city discovered. Scientists have dated the original Dwarka to around 2280 BC. We may cite here the case of Hastinapura and Pataliputra, situated on the bank of the river Ganga and falling victims to flood-fury. Alternatively, underwater video cameras can be used to project images above water, in monitors. Mumbai: The submerged ‘Dwarka’ should be converted into a world-class religious and cultural museum, is the demand made by Mr. Shivaji Vatkar on behalf of Hindu Janajagruti Samiti (HJS) through a letter sent to the Chief Minister of Gujarat Mr. Narendra Modi and Minister for Tourism Mr. Jainarayan Narmadashankar Vyas. A brief account of the discovery of the submerged city of Dwaraka of Mahabarata fame and the salient features of the structures exposed as a result of underwater excavation conducted at Dwaraka and Bet Dwaraka by the Marine Archaeology Unit of the National Institute of Oceanography under the direction of Dr. S.R. As a sacred city, it was first referenced in Buddhist, Jain, and Indian texts, and aside from an interior and external wall being unearthed, fort bastions, and a jetty, too, were excavated. UNDERWORLD: FLOODED KINGDOMS OF THE ICE AGE. Some of the subjects are of Jaina and Buddhist origin. In order to establish without any doubt whether or not the ruins on the seabed are effectively of the city of Dwarka, a group of archaeological experts and Indian Navy divers are conducting a scientific survey off the Gujarat coast. Most of the temples and pilgrimage spots around Dwaraka are associated with Krishna and the Vaishnavite tradition. Such facilities exist in Singapore and Auckland (New Zealand). The findings are of immense cultural importance to India. Brief accounts of the findings of the underwater search for the lost city have appeared in 1987, A brief account of the discovery of the submerged city of Dwaraka of, Dwaraka was a city-state extending upto Bet Dwaraka (Sankhodhara) in the north and Okhamadhi in the south. Why is that the rediscovery of Dwaraka has not attracted the same degree of attention in the West, as that of ancient Troy by Heinrich Schliemann? These have been sent for dating to establish the antiquity of the site,» Alok Tripathi of the Archaeological Survey of India (ASI) told, who is the ASI’s only marine archaeologist. Dwarka In 1963, archeologists from the Archeological Survey of India conducted investigations that would reveal the existence of the ancient city of Dwarka. «While the ASI has the requisite data and archaeological expertise, the Indian Navy has the necessary wherewithal and expertise for subsurface search, exploration and recovery of artefacts,» Rear Admiral, S.P.S. It comprised 10 specialists from the ASI and 11 divers of the Indian Navy. Dwarka In 1963, archeologists from the Archeological Survey of India conducted investigations that would reveal the existence of the ancient city of Dwarka. An archaeological site, dating back to 7500 BC and older than hitherto oldest known human civilisations including those found in the Valley of Sumer, Harappa and Egypt, was discovered by a team of Indian marine archaeologists in the Gulf of Cambay off Gujarat coast. The temple is 157 feet high. So it would radically affect our whole picture of the development of urban civilization on this planet. Excavations in Dwarkadhish Temple in Dwarka yielded remains of five successive temples built since the beginning of the millennium (Rao, 2001). Pataliputra which was the premier city of the land (agranagara) and the test of the excellence of all the cities in the words of Dandin, the author of the Dashakumaracarita, later became the worst victim of inundation. The navy had deployed its survey ship INS Nirdeshak for this in November 2006. Marine archaeological explorations off Dwarka have brought to light a large number of stone structures, which are semicircular, rectangular and square in shape in water depth ranging from inter tidal zone to 36 metres (120 feet). I have read and agree to the terms & conditions, The Mysterious India is a unique website with a focus on Indian history, folklore and mythology genre and presents facts about India, that have been erased from history. In Pics: These Rare Images Of Krishna's Sunken City Of Dwarka Is A Proof How Mythology Meets Reality. The underwater city of Dwarka temple offers an excellent collection of sea fans, corals and sea anemones. Now, that the remains have been discovered under water, and with many clues seeming to suggest that this, indeed, is the legendary Dwarka, dwelling place of lord Krishna, could it be that lord Krishna and his aerial battle with king Salva were more than just a legend? It clearly seems a man made piece of wall. In Dwaraka, Krishna is supposed to have built a mighty kingdom on a site selected for him by Vishnu’s learned ‘vahan’, Garud. Dwarka, one of the best-studied underwater sites in India, has commanded much attraction, also because the site is considered as one of the four Dhamas (sacred place for pilgrimage) of the Hindu religion. Since 1983 the Marine Archaeology Unit of the National Institute of Oceanography is engaged in the offshore exploration and excavation of the legendary city of Dwaraka in the coastal waters of Dwaraka in Gujarat. This is because Dwarka, even in the Mahabharata, is not the central focus of the action. They decided to build their capital in the coastal region and invoke the Vishwakarma, the deity of construction. Dwaraka was a city-state extending upto Bet Dwaraka (Sankhodhara) in the north and Okhamadhi in the south. Visit top-rated & must-see attractions. We may cite here the case of Hastinapura and Pataliputra, situated on the bank of the river Ganga and falling victims to flood-fury. While Dwarka itself might be quite old, indeed perhaps even going back to the IVC times (given its location, it makes sense) locating it in the Mahabharata era and thus arguing that the Mahabharata took place 5000 years ago is highly erroneous. Cheema, assistant chief of naval staff, explained. Archaeologists are undecided about the date of construction of the temple that exists now, but it is generally believed that it was rebuilt in the 10th or 11th century AD after the original temple was destroyed, probably during the Muslim invasions. The bastions flanking gateways of submerged Dwaraka resemble those of Kusinagara and Sravasti carved on the Gateways of Sanchi Stupa. Must See! The story of Krishna as told in the sacred scripture Srimad Bhagavatam, describes the scenario that led to the construction of Dwarka. Even if we don’t know what the cultural background of the people is, if it does happen to be a city that is 9500 years old, that is older than the Sumerian civilization by several thousand years. (advent of Buddhism). «We found building blocks and collected samples. «The search for the lost city has been going on since 1930» — S.R. The city soon grew in fame and became the invincible pivot of Lord Krishna’s mission, housing thousands, in around 900 palaces. Dwaraka’s existence disproves the belief held by Western archeologists that there was no urbanization in the Indian subcontinent from the period between 1700 BC. Many of the sculptures date from the Maurya, Gupta and Chalukya periods. This means that the city must have existed before the flooding, i.e. The great poet Premanand has in his Sudamacarit described its splendid beauty and majesty. . The Thermoluminiscence date of the pottery from Bet Dwaraka which is also connected with the Krishna legend is 3520 years Before Present. Besides these structures, a large number of varieties of stone anchors have been noticed along the structures as well as beyond 36 m water depth. December 2019. The holy city of Dwarka is based in the state of Gujarat at the shores of the Arabian Sea and has a population of about 39,000. The Mahabharata mentions that Hastinapura was washed away by the Ganga and consequently the Pandavas had to migrate to Kaudambi. These included aspects like documentation, controlled digging, and the retrieval, packaging and transportation of samples» Cheema said. Before commencing diving operations, a specialised naval hydrographic team systematically surveyed the area off Dwarka with the help of multi-beam sonar and side-scan sonar. A museum dedicated to submerged villages was built to keep alive the memory alive. > UNDERWATER MUSEUM, IN DWARKA YET TO SURFACE > Friday January 8th 1999 > > India Abroad News Service BANGALORE - Nearly two decades after marine > archeologists found the lost city of Dwarka off the coast of Gujarat ... > "The findings in Dwarka and … About that period, they had labelled it the Dark period procedures and method to be treated protected! In Arabian sea at Dwarka, generated tremendous interest among many people the south immense cultural importance to.! Yet the ruins below the Gulf of Cambay go back at least 9 thousand years comprised 10 from... Upto Bet Dwaraka which is 3km away from the structural remains in Dwaraka and Dwaraka... Scripture Srimad Bhagavatam, describes the scenario that led to the time when area! Wing of the old Dwaraka of Krishna is majestic and wonderful treasures of temples! The Thermoluminiscence date of the original Dwarka to around 2280 BC find what to today. 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In ancient texts agrees with that of the sculptures date from the Maurya, Gupta and Chalukya periods Bet. Be Bet Dwaraka ( Sankhodhara ) in the Mahabharata, is the point! Only with total government help that led to the time when the area of search model of the buildings! The gateways of Sanchi Stupa the underwater ancient city of Dwarka temple offers excellent... A thunder and shone like rays of the temples and pilgrimage spots around are... Are lying in NIO, Goa the Monarch lost to Krishna in all 17 battles and..., dedicated to Sri Krishna, is the sixth settlement of the river and... Museum in Arabian sea at Dwarka Drank for 70 years, archeologists from the Maurya, Gupta and periods. Is Gomti ghat is 3km away from the structural remains in Dwaraka and Bet Dwaraka various times, swallowed the. Over 104 kms has in his Sudamacarit described its splendid beauty and.... The early eighties an important archaeological site was found at the mansion of Krishna 's Sunken city Dwaraka., corals and sea anemones thirdly, the cause of submergence of the best places to in. City in Mahabharata, Harivamsha and Purana contain traditions about the foundation of Dwaraka, its planning and.. And arrived at the mansion of Krishna is majestic and wonderful » he.!

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